Goal 15: Life on land

Lao PDR’s resource-based economy is driven by forestry, agriculture, hydropower and minerals. Together, these sectors account for more than half of Lao PDR’s total wealth. Lao PDR will need to diversify its economy and increase environmental sustainability through robust management of its natural resources, including land resources. The country also needs to address climate change mitigation and adaptation, while strengthening its resilience to natural disasters.

From 2005 to 2013, the hydropower and mining sectors combined generated about one third of Laos's economic growth. The natural resources sector has a high ratio of capital to labour, and was able to produce approximately 18 percent of Lao PDR’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013 with only 22,000 people. 

While Lao PDR is off-track on the national target for forest cover, forest cover has increased since 2011, when it was reported to be 40.3 per cent. Forest cover in 2017 stood at 13.73 million hectares or an estimated 58 per cent of the area of the country. Between 2010 and 2015, deforesation rates were estimated as 0.26 per annum. The main drivers of forest degradation are unsustainable wood harvesting, from illegal logging and poorly regulated harvesting, and shifting cultivation. Deforestation is largely due to agricultural expansion (including rubber and sugar cane plantations), hydropower, mining, infrastructure and urban expansion. Weak enforcement of regulations and the lack of public awareness on environmental issues compound the problem. The loss of forested lands affects in particular poor rural and ethnic communities located in and around forest areas.

Lao PDR aims to achieve 70% forest cover by 2020. The main obstacles for reversing deforestation are unclear procedures for plantation establishment and land allocation, limited financial resources and human capacity, and weak enforcement of laws and policies. Changes in institutional responsibility have delayed afforestation and reforestation.  

To address deforestation, the government is promoting community participation, sustainable forest management and payment for ecosystems services. In a promising move, the government is encouraging the private sector to shift to woodprocessing and commercial tree plantations such as eucalyptus, teak, agar wood and rubber.

Lao PDR’s rich biodiversity is facing serious threats from the degradation and disappearance of habitat, poaching and wildlife trade. The government has designated 20 national Protected Areas covering 20 percent of the country as National Protected Areas (also called National Biodiversity Conservation Areas). Additionally, there are two green corridors and various district and province protected areas. Altogether one-fifth of the country’s area is under some degree of protection. Notwithstanding these efforts, more and more species are threatened with extinction (115 in 2010, 210 in 2017).v

Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihoods. Plant life provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resources. Forests cover 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, provide vital habitats for millions of species, and important sources for clean air and water, as well as being crucial for combating climate change.

Every year, 13 million hectares of forests are lost, while the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares, disproportionately affecting poor communities.

While 15 percent of land is protected, biodiversity is still at risk. Nearly 7,000 species of animals and plants have been illegally traded. Wildlife trafficking not only erodes biodiversity, but creates insecurity, fuels conflict, and feeds corruption.

Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage and support global food and water security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and peace and security.

Facts and figures

1.6 billion

Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods.


Forests are home to more than 80 percent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects.

2.6 billion

2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture for a living.


Nature-based climate solutions can contribute about a third of CO2 reductions by 2030.

$125 trillion

The value of ecosystems to human livelihoods and well-being is $US125 trillion per year.


Mountain regions provide 60-80 percent of the Earth's fresh water.

  • By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

  • By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

  • By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

  • By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

  • Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

  • Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

  • Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

  • By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

  • By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

  • Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

  • Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

  • Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities
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